Negotiation Resource Kit - Intro
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This Resource Kit is structured in seven modules exploring specific aspects of negotiation. After a short introduction offline and online content resources are provided - with an emphasis on the latter. Each module provides a number of training activities that have been specifically designed for the contents introduced. In addition to these, check out our Activities to Process Content as facilitation techniques you can use when introducing new contents to your group.
Less experienced facilitators might find useful the sample agendas provided at the bottom of this page.
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The Harvard Negotiation Project has developed a method that is articulated into four principles – or parts: 1) Separate the people from the problem; 2) Focus on interests, not positions; 3) Generate options for mutual gain; 4) Insist on using objective criteria. The method in reality is no more than common sense and common experience organised in a way to provide a ready-to-use framework for analysis and action. Plenty of activities, especially role-plays, are provided.
Many negotiations seem intractable and agreement looks impossible. William Ury has developed a method he calls “breakthrough negotiation” articulated in five steps: 1) Go to the balcony (don’t control the other person’s behaviour, control your own); 2) Step to their side (create a favourable climate; defuse anger, fear, suspicion and hostility of the other side); 3) Reframe (when the other side digs into position, change the game: reframe to help them deal with the problem); 4) Build them a golden bridge (try to identify and satisfy their interests; help them save face, make the outcome appear as a victory for them); 5) Use power to educate (if they still dig into position and want to win over you, educate them to the contrary, make it hard for them to say no). This module helps a exploring and practicing "breakthrough negotiation".
Negotiation involves both people’s head and gut. Not only interests, but also the very people are part of the negotiation, with all their emotions. Emotions can make obstacles to a mutually satisfactory agreement but can also help. Methods for dealing with emotions that don’t work are explored. Roger Fisher and Daniel Shapiro suggest addressing the concern, not the emotion. They envision five core concerns that stimulate many emotions: appreciation, affiliation, autonomy, status and role. This module explores how to use the power of each concern both as a lens to understand what’s happening in a negotiation and as a lever to improve it.
Beyond the basics of principled negotiation and positional bargaining lie areas of greater complexity. One such area is the realm of culture. What has culture to do with negotiation? How do cultural differences affect the way people negotiate? Is the “Harvard model” applicable in/with every culture? What happens when people from different cultures negotiate? To what extent can we possibly draw generalisations on other cultures’ approach to negotiation without running the risk of misunderstanding and misrepresenting others? Is a culturally informed approach to conflict resolution compatible with a Christian ethically informed conflict resolution? The content resources here provided focus more on these questions than on providing illustrations or generalisations about how people from different cultures negotiate. The activities foster exploration. Their intent is to deepen participants' understanding on the relationship between negotiation, conflict and culture.
7th Module - Beyond one-on-one engagement: Multi-party Negotiation and Negotiation in Public Arenas
Real life negotiations frequently involve more than two parties. Most literature on negotiation - especially Harvard-like models - tend to create a one-on-one focus, as if everything is negotiated in smoke filled rooms, behind closed doors. Political, social and economic decisions often result from the interaction of multiple interest groups negotiating with each other and with authorities. Public policy is frequently negotiated. What happens when there is more than one party to deal with? What is the role of coalitions in multi-stakeholder negotiations? How can disadvantaged groups negotiate their interests in the public arena?
This Resource Kit is structured as a toolbox.The contents and activities are designed in order for you to choose what to draw and decide how to use it. Though, if you are not an experienced facilitator you might need a little help on how to use this resource. Below you can find a few sample agendas for this end. Please consider that these are just a few of the many possible examples of how to organise the tools provided.